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MLA 8 Made Easy from OWL at Purdue
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Start on Slide 30 for Works Cited directions
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Color-coded Works Cited Examples
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The 8th edition MLA handbook now recommends one universal set of guidelines, which you apply to any type of source. It's short and easy to use and includes how to evaluate sources, gather citation information, cite sources within your paper, and create works-cited list.
Portions of this guide have come from:
--Honolulu Community College Library
--Valencia West Campus, Valencia College - compiled & edited by Beth King, Librarian
Changes from MLA 7
If you were used to MLA 7th Edition, you will see some changes in MLA 8.
MLA 8 is arranged around “containers” instead of formats. Books, journals, and web sites are examples of containers. A container within a container is possible, so there could be a journal that is on a web site. This will become evident in the examples.
Other changes include:
- No cities of publication for books.
- No medium (print, web, etc.).
- The use of abbreviations such as vol. for volume, no. for number, and p. or pp. for page number(s).
- In most cases no date of access for electronic resources.
- Permanent URLs
Note that MLA recommends the inclusion of URLs for electronic sources, but leaves it up to the discretion of your instructor.
To use the examples in this guide without a URL, drop the URL and put a period at the end of your citation.
In general, MLA recommends the following:
- Include the DOI (digital object identifier) instead of a URL if present.
- If there is no DOI, include the permanent URL or permalink. This is also sometimes called a bookmark.
- If there is no permanent URL given, use whatever URL is present.
Elements and the Template
* Each item in the citation is now called an ELEMENT.
* Use the elements in the order below to create citations for all types of sources. If an element is not available, move on to the next one on the list.
* For some citations, elements 3-9 will repeat.
For example, if you found a journal article in an article database, such as Academic Search Complete. The journal is the first container (steps 3-9) and the database is the second container (repeat steps 3-9). Use the MLA Quick Guide and the MLA 8th Practice Template for more help.
Works Cited - Citation Format Examples
Follow these examples for the most common types of citations. To create your citation use elements 1-9.
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter. Bantam Books, 1986.
Manning, Harriet J. Ashgate. Popular and Folk Music Series: Michael Jackson and the
Perez, Rob. "City Pushes to Keep Its Elevated-Rail Plan." Honolulu Advertiser,18 Jan.
Knopper, Steve. “How Hip-Hop Lost its Group Dynamic.” Wall Street Journal - Eastern
|Magazine, print||Hitchens, Christopher. "Bring the Pope to Justice." Newsweek, vol. 155, no. 18, 3 May
Samuels, Allison, et al. “Battle for the Soul of Hip-Hop.” Newsweek, vol. 136, no. 15, 9 Oct.
|Journal Article, print||
Molina, Natalia. "In A Race All Their Own: The Quest to Make Mexicans Ineligible for U.S.
|Journal Article, online||
Boyer, Holly, and Aimee Graham. “Hip Hop in the United States.” Reference & User
Rhyme Pays: Hip-Hop and the Marketing of Cool. Films Media Group, 2004. Films On
Micelotta, Frank, photographer. VH1 Hip Hop Honors - Show. Getty Images, 3 Oct. 2004.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), et al. “CDC: Zika Virus.” Centers for
|Note about URLs:||